gg canFour hundred years ago, Samuel de Champlain—a governor in all but name— fulfilled several duties and responsibilities that would later be carried out by the governors of New France and, after Confederation, by the governors general of Canada.

Canada became a country at Confederation, in 1867. Since then, the responsibilities of the governor general have evolved, in tandem with Canada’s evolution as a sovereign and independent nation. This section will carry you through history as you learn more about former governors general; about Rideau Hall and the Citadelle of Québec, the official residences of the governor general; and other interesting facts

Governor General's Flag

gg can flagThe governor general's flag is blue with the crest of the Arms of Canada in its centre. A symbol of the sovereignty of Canada, the crest consists of a gold lion wearing the Royal Crown and holding in its right paw a red maple leaf. The lion stands on a wreath of the official colours of Canada.

The flag was approved by Her Majesty The Queen, on February 23, 1981, and it follows the general pattern of the governor general's flag in use since 1931. The governor general's flag takes precedence over all other flags in Canada except The Queen's, and it flies wherever the incumbent governor general is in residence.

Governor General Julie Payette Coat of Arms

6 01 JuliePayette CoatofArms Armoiries webCoat of Arms

A symbol of exploration and liberty, an open wing embodies our desire to reach higher and expand our horizons. As with birds protecting their young, the wing also conveys the strength and safety of family ties. Moreover, it represents Ms. Payette’s career as an aviator and astronaut. The Royal Crown symbolizes the viceregal office and service to all Canadians.

The astronaut’s helmet represents the never-ending quest for knowledge, a quest that extends beyond the frontiers of the known world.

At the top, a musical stave, a melody, symbolizes the creativity, sensitivity and remarkable virtuosity of human beings. The first notes of the second movement of Alessandro Marcello’s “Oboe Concerto in D Minor” evoke Ms. Payette’s lifelong interest in singing and classical music, particularly from the Baroque period.

gg can payetteMeaning “Through hardship to the stars,” the Latin phrase PER ASPERA AD ASTRA is the motto used by Ms. Payette and her fellow astronauts. Whatever the difficulties or challenges, perseverance and effort always bear fruit. There is hope in every situation; we simply need to look for it.

Making a nod to the cat perched atop “La fusée de Julie,” the emblem created by Quebec artist Gérard Dansereau of Ms. Payette’s first space mission, STS-96, the two lynx, proud and strong, represent us, the people of Canada. An elusive feline, the Canada lynx is remarkably well adapted to northern territories, particularly because of its enormous paws that allow it to move easily through the snow. The stars around their necks represent the spark of passion in each of us, inspiring us to dare to dream. They also evoke space travel and the work environment of astronauts. The laurel leaves – laurier in French – depicted alongside the stars represent Laurier, Ms. Payette’s son.

Represented here as seen from space, without borders and surrounded by a thin layer of atmosphere, our planet resembles a blue marble on a backdrop of darkness. It remains the only place where humans can live. The mathematical symbol for the sum, Σ (sigma), placed in its centre, illustrates the power of facts and science, and reminds us that we share the Earth and a responsibility to care for it


Thomson Newspapers Ltd. v. Canada SCC[1990] 1 SCR 425

This difference flows from the nature of corporate existence. While individuals as a rule have full legal capacity by the operation of law alone, artificial persons are creatures of the state and enjoy civil rights and powers only upon the approval of statutory authorities

The King v. Caledonian Insurance Co.1924 CanLII 13(SCC)

taken from the judgment of Lord Justice James in Rayner v. Preston

I agree that it is not accurate to call the relation between the vendor and purchaser of an estate under a contract while the contract is in fieri the relation of the trustee and cestui que trust.. But that is because it is uncertain whether the contract will or will not be performed, and the character in which the parties stand to one another remains in suspense as long as the contract is in fieri. But when the contract is performed by actual conveyance,

Criminal Code of Canada, RSC 1985,c C-46

Trafficking in persons

279.01 (1) Every person who recruits, transports, transfers, receives, holds, conceals or harbours a person, or exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person, for the purpose of exploiting them or facilitating their exploitation is guilty of an indictable offence and liable


(2) No consent to the activity that forms the subject-matter of a charge under subsection (1) is valid.

R. v. Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd 2003 BCSC 877(CanLII)

(145) Tyranny…The Rule of Law: Foundation of a Constitutional Democracy” p.24,25.. We should come on guard whenever we find governments giving themselves the power to do things that people are prohibited from doing to one another…Arbitrary conduct on the part of the government against an individual citizen is the artithesis of the rule of law.

[146]   There are certain legitimate privileges and distinctions which are made in favour of the government, however, such privileges and distinctions must be objectively justified.  The Courts are said to be taking increasingly probative examinations of the powers government affords itself.  Sir William Wade, in his text Administrative Law, 7th ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994) at 26 notes that:

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